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- edge cities term designating commercial complexes that have grown up on the margins of large American cities, a development that dates mainly from the 1970s. The term was coined by Joel Garreau in his book Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (1991). Sometimes called technoburbs, edge cities typically develop at the intersection of major highways and feature the amenities that serve large suburban populations in such locations shopping malls, entertainment centers, hospitals, schools, regional airports, and the like. These settings have proved attractive to businesses for corporate headquarters, which are often sited on appealingly sylvan campuses, and for office buildings that can house smaller companies. With convenient access and pleasant surroundings, edge cities avoid many inner-city problems. However, critics have noted in them marked class segregation and a diminished sense of community as well as, increasingly, such traditional urban ills as congestion and crime. Representative edge cities include Tysons Corner, Va., Edison Township, N.J., Irvine , Calif., and Plano , Tex. Bibliography: See study by J. Garreau (1991). Author not available, EDGE CITIES., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007
- cutting edge n. edge of a tool s blade. [in sing.] the latest or most advanced stage in the development of something: researchers at the cutting edge of molecular biology. [in sing.] a person or factor that contributes a dynamic or invigorating quality to a situation and thereby puts one at an advantage: the campaign began to lose its cutting edge. fig. incisiveness and directness of expression. adj. (cutting-edge) at the latest or most advanced stage of development; innovative or pioneering: cutting-edge technology.
- feather edge n. a fine edge produced by tapering a board or other object.
- razor edge (also razor s edge) n. a sharp edge of a knife, ax, or similar implement. fig. a state of sharp incisiveness: he had honed his mind to a razor edge. (the razor edge) fig. the most advanced stage in the development of something; the cutting edge: in 1960 jet planes were the razor edge of chic. PHRASES: on the razor s edge in a precarious or dangerous position: it is commonplace to believe that Finns live on the razor s edge, at the mercy of their powerful neighbor.DERIVATIVES: razor-edged adj.
- River Edge residential borough (1990 pop. 10,603), Bergen co., NE N.J., on the Hackensack River; inc. 1894. Author not available, RIVER EDGE., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007
- edge detector n. A cell in the primary visual cortex (Area V1) that responds maximally to a straight edge that is darker on one side than the other and has a particular position and orientation on the retina, the response being strongest when the stimulus is moving. See also complex cell, end-stopped receptive field, feature detector, hypercomplex cell, simple cell. Compare bar detector.
- edge verb 1. edge the bladesynonyms: put an edge on, sharpen, hone, whet, strop, file. 2. edge with lacesynonyms: trim, bind, hem, border, fringe. 3. edge one s way through the crowdsynonyms: inch, ease, elbow, worm, work, sidle, sidestep, gravitate. 4. edge forwardsynonyms: inch, sidle, creep, steal.
- Edge Island see Edge ya . Author not available, EDGE ISLAND., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007
- edge effect n. Another name for the serial position effect.
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- William III (of Orange) (1650 1702) King of England, Ireland, and Scotland (1689 1702). William III was STATHOLDER of Holland and took over effective rule of the UNITED PROVINCES (1672 1702) after the crisis of the French invasion in 1672. In 1677 he married his cousin, MARY of England, and was invited in 1688 by seven leading English politicians to save England from his Roman Catholic father-in-law, JAMES II. In what became known as the GLORIOUS REVOLUTION, he landed at Torbay, met with virtually no resistance, and in 1689 jointly with Mary accepted from Parliament the crown of England. He defeated James II s efforts to establish a base in Ireland by the victory of the BOYNE and suppressed the highlanders of Scotland. He commanded the Dutch army in the Netherlands and although he scored only one victory, at Namur in 1695, he was able to win a favourable peace at RYSWICK two years later. He was never popular in England and relied heavily on Dutch favourites, such as the soldier Arnold Keppel, 1st Earl of Albemarle (1669 1718). Although he preferred the WHIGS to the TORIES, he tried to avoid one-party government. His reputation was affected by his failure to honour the Treaty of Limerick, a treaty (1691) in which William guaranteed political and religious freedom to Irish Catholics, and the massacre of GLENCOE (1692).
- Tuthmosis III See THUTMOSE III.
- Napoleon III (or Charles-Louis Napol on Bonaparte) (1808 73) Emperor of the French (1852 70). He was the third son of Hortense de Beauharnais stepdaughter of NAPOLEON I and Louis Bonaparte (1778 1846), brother of Napoleon I and King of Holland (1806 10). After the fall of Napoleon I, Napoleon III began a long period of exile in Switzerland. On the death of Napoleon I s only son, the Roi de Rome, in 1832, he became Bonapartist pretender to the French throne and twice attempted to overthrow LOUIS PHILIPPE, as a result of which he was deported. In 1840 embarked upon the disastrous Boulogne Conspiracy to gather supporters. He was arrested and imprisoned in the fortress of Ham. He escaped to London (1846) disguised as a mason by the name of Badinguet , which thereafter became his nickname. During the REVOLUTIONS OF 1848, he returned to France, and in December under the new constitution was elected President of the French Republic. In 1852, following a coup against Parliament, he had himself accepted as Emperor of the French. Napoleon III took part in the CRIMEAN WAR and presided over the Congress of PARIS (1856). His Liberal Empire (1860 70) widened the powers of the legislative assembly. Underestimating BISMARCK, he allowed the latter s belligerent EMS TELEGRAM to provoke him into fighting the FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR, the outcome of which brought ruin to the Second Empire. He was captured by the Prussians and deposed, spending the rest of his life in exile in England.
- Pepin III ( the Short) (c.714 68) First Carolingian king of the Franks (750 68). In 750, he deposed the last Merovingian king, Childeric III, and defeated the Lombards in 754 and 756. He ceded the conquered territories (the future Papal States) to the papacy in what was known as the Donation of Pepin. He was suceeded by his son Charlemagne.
- Henry III ( the Lion) (1129 95) Duke of Saxony (1142 80) and of Bavaria (1156 80). A Guelph, he regained lands lost by his father, Henry the Proud, to Emperor Conrad III. As Duke of Saxony, he promoted German expansion beyond the River Elbe. In 1180, after refusing to support the Italian campaign of Emperor Frederick I, he was deprived of most of his lands.
- Alexander III (1241 86) King of Scotland (1249 86). He defeated Haakon of Norway at the Battle of Largs (1263) and received the Hebrides by the Treaty of Perth. Despite close ties with England (his father-in-law was HENRY III), Alexander resisted English claims to the Scottish kingdom. The early death of his children left the succession to his granddaughter Margaret of Norway.
- DSM-III The abbreviation for the third, 1980 edition of the American Psychiatric Association s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, further revised in 1985 (DSM-IIIR). The original DSM appeared in 1952, with a second edition in 1968. The DSM-III introduced specific criteria for each disorder in order to facilitate diagnostic precision.
- Thutmose III (or Tuthmosis III) Pharaoh of Egypt (c.1504 1450 BC). During the first 22 years of his reign Thutmose III was overshadowed by his aunt HATSHEPSUT, wife of Thutmose II, who had herself declared regent in 1503. When she died in 1482, he promptly mobilized the army and defeated a coalition of Syrian and Palestinian enemies near Megiddo, gaining nearly all of Syria for his empire. Further successes followed, culminating in the defeat of the powerful Mitanni beyond the Euphrates. He extended Egyptian rule in Nubia, but generally he concentrated on the administration of his lands. The thriving prosperity of his reign was reflected in much new building at KARNAK.
- Prithviraj III (died 1193) Hindu (Chauhan Rajput) King of Delhi, who died in a brave attempt to resist the establishment of Muslim power in northern India. Until the Muslim invasions, he was preoccupied with defending his territories in Ajmer and Delhi against rival Hindu kings. Although he was victorious in 1192, in his first encounter with the Turkish invader, Muhammad Ghuri, in 1193 he was defeated and killed thus opening the way for the founding of the Delhi sultanate. Prithviraj III has been immortalized in ballads and folk literature as a figure of romance and heroism.
- Innocent III b. 1160 or 1161, d. 1216, pope (1198-1216), an Italian, b. Anagni, named Lotario di Segni; successor of Celestine III. Innocent III was succeeded by Honorius III. Papacy Innocent came from an important family, the counts of Segni, to which belonged also Gregory IX and Alexander IV. He was trained as a theologian and perhaps as a jurist, and under Celestine III (his uncle) he became (1190) a cardinal. At the time of his election as pope, Innocent seems already to have formed his ecclesiastico-political doctrine that since things of the spirit take preeminence over things of the body, and since the church rules the spirit and earthly monarchs rule the body, earthly monarchs must be in all things subject to the pope; the doctrine that the sphere of the church was limited had no real place in Innocent s idea. He set out immediately after his election to realize his ideal of the pope as ecclesiastical ruler of the world with some secular political power. Political Successes In imperial affairs he was constantly active. He acknowledged as king of Sicily the future Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II after Frederick s mother, the Empress Constance , had accepted papal suzerainty over Sicily and given up certain ecclesiastical privileges; on Constance s death, Innocent accepted Frederick as his ward, a trust he faithfully executed, as even his enemies admitted. In Germany the dispute between Philip of Swabia and Otto IV was arbitrated by the pope in favor of Otto (1201). Later (1207-8) the pope favored Philip, but after Philip s murder, Innocent crowned Otto (1209) as emperor, only to excommunicate him (1210) and dictate the election of the papal ward, Frederick, as German king (1212). Frederick made elaborate promises (as had Otto) favorable to the Holy See. Innocent s relations with England proceeded to the same political end, but this was hastened by a purely ecclesiastical quarrel over the election of an archbishop of Canterbury. Innocent set aside the two rival claimants and procured the election of Stephen Langton ; King John , enraged at what he felt was unwarrantable interference by the pope and at the obduracy of the clergy in opposing the demands of the king, persecuted the church. As a result the pope laid England under the interdict, excommunicated John (1209), and even considered deposing him. The people and the barons supported the church, and John had to submit; he received England and Ireland in fief from the pope, promising annual tribute to the Holy See. Subsequently the pope stood by John after the barons coerced him into granting the Magna Carta, for Innocent declared it null as a forcibly exacted promise and also as a vassal s promise made without his overlord s knowledge. Pandulf became Innocent s legate in England. Innocent was also the virtual overlord of Christian Spain, Scandinavia, Hungary, and the Latin East. Philip II of France remained independent of Innocent politically. On the moral question of Philip s divorce, however, Innocent forced the king to bow to the canon law. Political Failures The great failures of Innocent s policy were the Fourth Crusade (see Crusades ) and the conduct of Italy. That crusade, proclaimed and blessed by Innocent, never went to the Holy Land, but attacked instead Christians on the island of Zara and in the Byzantine Empire. Innocent excommunicated the disobedient crusaders, but later accepted the fait accompli and tried to spread the Latin rite over the Latin Empire of Constantinople; in spite of a new Latin patriarchate, these efforts were futile, and the schism of East and West was only exacerbated. In Italy, Innocent reclaimed the Patrimony of St. Peter (see Papal States ), the duchy of Spoleto, the March of Ancona, and the Ravenna district; he was recognized as temporal overlord by Tuscany, but northern Italian cities were unruly and maintained their independence throughout Innocent s pontificate. Innocent initiated the Albigensian mission and the Albigensian Crusade (see under Albigenses ); when he heard of the misbehavior of the crusaders of Simon de Montfort , he protested in vain. He supported the Teutonic Knights in the incursions along the Baltic. Influence on the Church Amid all his political activity Innocent was most energetic in the administration of the church. In this direction the triumph of his pontificate was the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), one of the greatest of councils. His was the original impetus behind St. Dominic s mission, and he provided the first approbation of the institute of St. Francis. Innocent s interest in law was ever active; thus as pope he constantly held court, with a good name for impartiality. He wrote extensively; his tract De contemptu mundi [on the contempt of this world] was widely read in the Middle Ages. Innocent s theories of the papal monarchy had a profound effect on the development of the papacy. Bibliography See C. E. Smith, Innocent III, Church Defender (1951, repr. 1971); S. R. Packard, Europe and the Church under Innocent III (rev. ed. 1968); H. Tillman, Pope Innocent III (tr. W. Sax, 1980). Author not available, INNOCENT III., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007
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- proactive / praktiv/ adj. (of a person, policy, or action) creating or controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than responding to it after it has happened: be proactive in identifying and preventing potential problems. DERIVATIVES: proaction / prakshn/ n. proactively adv. proactivity / praktivt/ n.
- inhibition, proactive See proactive interference.
- proactive interference n. Impairment of learning or performance of a task caused by having previously learnt similar information or a similar task. Also called proactive inhibition. See also Ranschburg inhibition, Skaggs-Robinson paradox. Compare retroactive interference. PI abbrev.
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- contact process see sulfuric acid . Author not available, CONTACT PROCESS., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007
- contact receptor n. A sensory receptor such as a touch receptor or a taste receptor that is stimulated by an object or substance touching it. Compare distance receptor.
- contact lens n. a thin plastic lens placed directly on the surface of the eye to correct visual defects.
- contact sport n. a sport in which the participants necessarily come into bodily contact with one another.
- contact inhibition The cessation in vitro of both movement and replication in a cell on making contact with other cells, such that a confluent monolayer is formed in the culture. Probably it occurs as a result of the formation of cytoplasmic bridges between cells. In many cancer cells this inhibition is absent.
- eye contact n. The event of two people simultaneously gazing at each other in the vicinity of each other s eyes. Also called mutual gaze. See also equilibrium hypothesis, gaze aversion, non-verbal communication, regulator.
- contact verb contact the head officesynonyms: get/be in touch with, get hold/ahold of, communicate with, be in communication with; write to, write, notify, phone, call, speak to, reach.
- contact hypothesis n. The proposition that sheer social contact between hostile groups is sufficient to reduce intergroup hostility. Empirical evidence suggests that this is so only in certain circumstances.
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